his title and the leadership of the Campbell clan in 1638. Later
that year he emerged as the leader of the Scots opposed to the
religious policies of Charles I.
the Treaty of Berwick in 1639 he helped to make the Scottish
Parliament an effective political body. Later that year Argyll
arranged for his main political opponent, Earl of Montrose,
arranged for him to be confined in Edinburgh Castle.
On the outbreak
of the Civil War Argyll supported Parliament and the Scots army
played an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces
at Marston Moor (July, 1644).
1644, the Earl of Montrose defeated the Covenanters under Lord
Elcho at Tippermuir. He then captured Aberdeen (September, 1644)
and plundered the countryside. At Inverlochy (February, 1645)
his army killed 1,500 Campbells in battle. He achieved further
victories at Auldearn (May, 1645) and Alford (June, 1645). Argyll
was therefore pleased when Montrose was defeated by David Leslie
at Philiphaugh (September, 1645).
of the execution of Charles I. This act resulted in Argyll breaking
with Oliver Cromwell and soon after Charles II was proclaimed
king in Edinburgh.
1650, the Parliamentary army invaded Scotland. Cromwell's victory
at Dunbar in September destroyed Argyll's authority and he was
forced into retirement.