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A sect formed by the followers of the Covenanting leader, Richard Cameron, after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge in 1679. It rejected the indulgences offered to the covenanters and renounced allegiance to the king, Charles II. The Cameronians continued the practice of holding field conventicles, open-air religious services, but the death of their leader at Aird Moss in June 1680 and the subsequent execution of his principal lieutenant, Hackston of Rathillet, were a sore blow to their cause. Although it was no longer a potent opposition, its members continued to be persecuted by government troops, especially in the wake of the Test Act of 1681, which required an oath of allegiance to the king and the recognition of the Protestant faith. During that period, which came to be known as the 'Killing Times', the Cameronians were put down with much ferocity by the Lord Advocate,  Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, and by John Graham of Claverhouse. A sympathetic account of the Cameronians appears in Old Mortality by Sir Walter Scott. Later, the Cameronians gave their name to the 26th Regiment of Foot which was raised by William of Orange in 1688.

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