was later posted to Ireland where he served as joint undersecretary.
In 1922 he was promoted to permanent undersecretary at the Home
Office. In 1926 he was chairman of the committee that dealt
with the problems caused by the General Strike. In 1932 he was
appointed governor of Bengal in India.
to Britain in 1938 Anderson was elected to the House of Commons.
In November 1938, Neville Chamberlain placed Anderson in charge
of the Air Raid Precautions (ARP). He immediately commissioned
the engineer, William Patterson, to design a small and cheap
shelter that could be erected in people's gardens.
few months nearly one and a half million of these Anderson Shelters
were distributed to people living in areas expected to be bombed
by the Luftwaffe. Made from six curved sheets bolted together
at the top, with steel plates at either end, and measuring 6ft
6in by 4ft 6in (1.95m by 1.35m) the shelter could accommodate
six people. These shelters were half buried in the ground with
earth heaped on top. The entrance was protected by a steel shield
and an earthen blast wall.
shelters were given free to poor people. Men who earned more
than £5 a week could buy one for £7. Soon after
the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, over
2 million families had shelters in their garden. By the time
of the Blitz this had risen to two and a quarter million.
joined the War Cabinet in October 1940 as Lord President of
the Council. In this post he he organizing civilian and economic
resources. He was also responsible for suppressing the Communist
Party supporting Daily Worker. In October 1943 he became chancellor
of the exchequer where he introduced the PAYE system for income