Dates in Scottish History
Julius Agricola advances across the River Clyde fighting off bands
of warring celts.
The celtic tribes unite under Calgacus, but he is killed (along
with 10000 men) when he meets the Roman army at Ardoch.
The Pictish people were first mentioned in Roman literature. The
name "Pict" is said to have come either from a latin
word meaning "painted ones" or another meaning "fighter".
Both of these accurately depicted the Pictish people.
Roman literature describes the warring tribe based in Ireland
as the "Scots".
The Pict, Scot and Saxon tribes attack the Romans in London and
plunder their treasures.
The Scots leave Ireland and build their kingdom of Dalriada in
Argyll on the West coast of Scotland.
St. Columba died.
Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts as one nation. This
was the first step in creating a united Scotland, a process not
completed until at least 1034 and perhaps much later.
Malcolm II kills Kenneth III and becomes King.
Malcolm II gains Lothian after defeating the Saxons at the Battle
of Carham. Death of Owen-the-Bald, King of Strathclyde.
Duncan, already ruler of Strathclyde, kills his grandfather Malcolm
II and becomes King of a (largely) united Scotland.
MacBeth kills Duncan and becomes King.
Malcolm III (or Malcolm Canmore) kills MacBeth and becomes King.
On the death of Edgar, Scotland becomes disunited. Alexander I
becomes King of Scots, but David I becomes King in Lothian and
Unity was restored when, on Alexander's death, David becomes King
of Scots. His reign is one of the most important in Scotland's
history, extending Scottish borders to the River Tees, including
all of Northumberland.
Signing of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and
France - one of the world's oldest mutual defence treaties.
Annexation of Scotland by England. Scotland's Coronation Stone
- the "Stone of Destiny" or "Stone of Scone"
- was removed to Westminster Abbey (in London) by the English
King Edward I. The stone was temporarily returned to Scotland
in 1950 and permanently returned in 1996.
Battle of Bannockburn (Scots under Robert the Bruce routed the
English led by Edward II) resulting in Scottish independence.
The Declaration of Arbroath was drawn up to urge the Pope to recognise
Scottish independence from England. The Pope accepted the Declaration.
University of St. Andrews founded.
University of Glasgow founded.
King James II was killed by an exploding canon during the siege
King James III was murdered after being accused of surrounding
himself with evil advisors who encouraged him to bring Englishmen
into Scottish affairs.
University of Aberdeen founded.
King Henry VII of England gave his daughter in marriage to James
IV of Scotland. This gave rise to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.
Under the terms of a treaty with France (the "Auld Alliance")
all Scottish citizens became French and vice versa.
John Knox's sermon at Perth - regarded as the start of the Reformation
University of Edinburgh founded.
Scotland adopts Gregorian Calendar.
James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England bringing about
the Union of the Crowns.
James (on his only return to Scotland) tactlessly lectures his
countrymen on the "superiority of English civilisation".
James imposes Bishops on the presbyterian Church of Scotland in
an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England. This move
was deeply unpopular with the Scots.
Charles I becomes King on the death of his father. Although born
in Scotland, Charles had no interest in the country and dealt
with Scottish affairs with even less tact than his father, causing
Charles attempted to further anglicise the Church of Scotland
by introducing a new prayerbook, which caused riots at St. Giles
in Edinburgh. Jenny Geddes throws a stool in St. Giles in protest.
Charles regarded protests against the prayerbook as treason, forcing
Scots to choose between their church and the King. A "Covenant",
swearing to resist these changes to the death, was signed in Greyfriars
Church in Edinburgh. The covenant was accepted by hundreds if
thousands of Scots.
Charles calls a General Assembly, effectively abolishing the unpopular
Scottish Bishops. Agreement is reached through the "Treaty
Charles peace collapses; the Scots show force by marching on Newcastle.
Having no realistic chance of opposing the Scots, Charles negotiates
a truce at Ripon.
Civil war breaks out in England. The Scottish Covenanters side
with the English rebels who take power. The Earl of Montrose had
sided with King Charles so civil strife also spilled into Scotland.
The National Library of Scotland was founded. Now one of the UK's
four copyright deposit libraries.
The massacre of Glencoe. Clan Campbell siding with the King murders
members of Clan McDonald.
Bank of Scotland founded (still operating to this day).
Act of Union is passed; Scotland formally united with England
to form Great Britain. In so doing, the Scottish Parliament voted
itself out of existence.
First Jacobite rebellion; Jacobites defeated at the Battle of
The world's first Golf Club (the Honourable Company of Edinburgh
Golfers) was founded.