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Scottish History


The Stone Age

The Bronze Age

Pictish Stone
The Picts

Early Scotland

Ancient Names

Viking Scotland

Roman Scotland

The Celts

The Gael

St Columba

Medieval Church

Early Rulers
Of Scotland


The Stuarts
in Scotland


Scottish Wars of Independence

Scottish Battles

Scottish Weapons

William Wallace
William Wallace

Battle of
Stirling Bridge

Robert the Bruce


Battle of
Bannockburn


After Bannockburn

The Trial of
William Wallace

Declaration of Arbroath

Mary Queen Of Scots
Mary Queen of Scots

Feudalism

Scottish Reformation

Articles of Union


Glencoe

Rob Roy MacGregor

Prince Charlie
Bonnie Prince Charlie

Jacobites

Battle of Culloden


Highland Clearances


Emigration

General George Wade
General George Wade

Scottish Military Roads

Scottish Enlightment

Kilmany Church
Free Church


Thomas Telford

First Scottish Census

Highland Fisheries

Agricultural Revolution

Industrial Revolution

Urbanisation

Scottish Railways

Scottish Portraits

Scottish Golf


Fife Architecture

Scottish Burghs

Trade By Sea

Burghs and Trade

Lighting The Coast

Scottish Doocots

Scottish Tolbooths

Mercat Crosses

Abernethy History

Kintyre History

Old Scottish Scenes


Notable Dates in Scottish History

80
Julius Agricola advances across the River Clyde fighting off bands of warring celts.

84
The celtic tribes unite under Calgacus, but he is killed (along with 10000 men) when he meets the Roman army at Ardoch.

296
The Pictish people were first mentioned in Roman literature. The name "Pict" is said to have come either from a latin word meaning "painted ones" or another meaning "fighter". Both of these accurately depicted the Pictish people.

360
Roman literature describes the warring tribe based in Ireland as the "Scots".

368
The Pict, Scot and Saxon tribes attack the Romans in London and plunder their treasures.

503
The Scots leave Ireland and build their kingdom of Dalriada in Argyll on the West coast of Scotland.

597
St. Columba died.

843
Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts as one nation. This was the first step in creating a united Scotland, a process not completed until at least 1034 and perhaps much later.

1005
Malcolm II kills Kenneth III and becomes King.

1018
Malcolm II gains Lothian after defeating the Saxons at the Battle of Carham. Death of Owen-the-Bald, King of Strathclyde.

1034
Duncan, already ruler of Strathclyde, kills his grandfather Malcolm II and becomes King of a (largely) united Scotland.

1040
MacBeth kills Duncan and becomes King.

1057
Malcolm III (or Malcolm Canmore) kills MacBeth and becomes King.

1107
On the death of Edgar, Scotland becomes disunited. Alexander I becomes King of Scots, but David I becomes King in Lothian and Strathclyde.

1124
Unity was restored when, on Alexander's death, David becomes King of Scots. His reign is one of the most important in Scotland's history, extending Scottish borders to the River Tees, including all of Northumberland.

1295
Signing of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and France - one of the world's oldest mutual defence treaties.

1296
Annexation of Scotland by England. Scotland's Coronation Stone - the "Stone of Destiny" or "Stone of Scone" - was removed to Westminster Abbey (in London) by the English King Edward I. The stone was temporarily returned to Scotland in 1950 and permanently returned in 1996.

1314
Battle of Bannockburn (Scots under Robert the Bruce routed the English led by Edward II) resulting in Scottish independence.

1320
The Declaration of Arbroath was drawn up to urge the Pope to recognise Scottish independence from England. The Pope accepted the Declaration.

1411
University of St. Andrews founded.

1451
University of Glasgow founded.

1460
King James II was killed by an exploding canon during the siege of Roxburgh.

1488
King James III was murdered after being accused of surrounding himself with evil advisors who encouraged him to bring Englishmen into Scottish affairs.

1494
University of Aberdeen founded.

1502
King Henry VII of England gave his daughter in marriage to James IV of Scotland. This gave rise to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

1512
Under the terms of a treaty with France (the "Auld Alliance") all Scottish citizens became French and vice versa.

1559
John Knox's sermon at Perth - regarded as the start of the Reformation in Scotland.

1582
University of Edinburgh founded.

1600
Scotland adopts Gregorian Calendar.

1603
James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England bringing about the Union of the Crowns.

1617
James (on his only return to Scotland) tactlessly lectures his countrymen on the "superiority of English civilisation".

1618
James imposes Bishops on the presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England. This move was deeply unpopular with the Scots.

1625
Charles I becomes King on the death of his father. Although born in Scotland, Charles had no interest in the country and dealt with Scottish affairs with even less tact than his father, causing discontent.

1637
Charles attempted to further anglicise the Church of Scotland by introducing a new prayerbook, which caused riots at St. Giles in Edinburgh. Jenny Geddes throws a stool in St. Giles in protest.

1638
Charles regarded protests against the prayerbook as treason, forcing Scots to choose between their church and the King. A "Covenant", swearing to resist these changes to the death, was signed in Greyfriars Church in Edinburgh. The covenant was accepted by hundreds if thousands of Scots.

1639
Charles calls a General Assembly, effectively abolishing the unpopular Scottish Bishops. Agreement is reached through the "Treaty of Berwick".

1640
Charles peace collapses; the Scots show force by marching on Newcastle.

1641
Having no realistic chance of opposing the Scots, Charles negotiates a truce at Ripon.

1642
Civil war breaks out in England. The Scottish Covenanters side with the English rebels who take power. The Earl of Montrose had sided with King Charles so civil strife also spilled into Scotland.

1682
The National Library of Scotland was founded. Now one of the UK's four copyright deposit libraries.

1692
The massacre of Glencoe. Clan Campbell siding with the King murders members of Clan McDonald.

1695
Bank of Scotland founded (still operating to this day).

1707
Act of Union is passed; Scotland formally united with England to form Great Britain. In so doing, the Scottish Parliament voted itself out of existence.

1715
First Jacobite rebellion; Jacobites defeated at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

1744
The world's first Golf Club (the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers) was founded.


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