Romans have left important monuments in Scotland. As might be
expected in this wild frontier region, these are purely military
in character. They may be classified under four headings: roads;
marching camps; forts;
and the frontier works on the Forth - Clyde isthmus. Many Roman
forts have been identified in Scotland, and a number have been
more or less explored. Of these latter, the most famous are
Birrens on the Solway, the Roman Blatobulgium, and Newstead,
Trimontium, on the Tweed. The excavations of Newstead, by the
late Dr. James Curle in 1905 to 1910, formed a landmark
in the history of classical archaeology in western Europe. The
northmost permanent fort so far known is at Cardean near Meigle
in Angus. Thence a line of marching camps extends northwards
at least as far as the Spey.
most important Roman work remaining in Scotland is the Antonine
Wall. The frontier line betwixt Forth and Clyde was first marked
out by Julius Agricola in the year A.D. 80. Some of his small
entrenched posts have
been identified. In AD. 142 or 143 the legate Lollius Urbicus,
acting for the Emperor Antoninus Pius, laid out a permanent
frontier on the Agricolan line. This consisted of a wall made
of sods on a stone foundation, except
in the eastern section, where the wall is of clay. In front
was a ditch, deep and wide, and in the rear a military way.
The garrison was disposed in some thirteen or more forts. The
whole barrier is 37 miles long. It was held,
but with at least two interruptions, till about the end of the
second century. Tour Roman
Roman Scotland (Historic Scotland) Two thousand years ago the Roman army, one of the world's most successful fighting machines, set out to conquer Scotland. Three invasions were attempted and each ended in withdrawal. These forays have left their mark on today's landscape in the form of impressive earthworks, the remains of forts and frontiers constructed by the army, including the famous and spectacular Antonine Wall. Using the latest archaeological evidence and contemporary Roman documents, including the uniquely informative Vindolanda writing tablets, Dr Breeze assesses these three periods of occupation and the effect they had on Scotland and its people. He asks: why the Romans chose to invade and why they failed what was the strength and nature of the invasion force how strong was the opposition what was daily life like for civilians and soldiers what was the relationship between Rome and the northern tribes after the Roman withdrawal Copiously illustrated with photographs and drawings, this informative and lively guide is enhanced by specially commissioned reconstruction drawings of military installations.
Forteviot: A Pictish and Scottish Royal Centre The royal centre of Forteviot in Strathearn, Perthshire is one of the most famous early medieval sites in Scotland. It has traditionally been regarded as a royal capital, first of the powerful Pictish kingdom of Fortriu and then of the early Scots. But the royal centre is poorly understood. Much of it disappeared in the early nineteenth century, swept away by the Water of May, leaving only fragmentary sculpture. However the function, date and iconography of the magnificent arch, discovered in the river bed in 1836, have until now remained obscure. This first full-scale study of this famous site throws new light on Pictish kingship and the Church, enabling one of the most powerful Pictish kings, Unuist son of Uurguist, to emerge from the shadows of historical obscurity.
The First Frontier: Rome in the North of Scotland The Antonine Wall, which runs across Scotland from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde, has been described as 'Rome's Last Frontier', as it was the Empire's most northern outpost. But the real outpost, about which modern excavation is revealing more and more information, was the Gask Ridge in Perthshire. Research over the last 50 years has revolutionised our picture of the Roman occupation of the north of Scotland, well before the time of the famous governor Agricola. Moreover, the Roman remains can now be set more firmly in the context of the pre-existing native society. Tour Roman
Roman Conquest of Scotland: The... In the summer of 84 AD
the Italian gentleman Gnaeus Iulius Agricola, governor of Roman
Britain (78-84 AD), led an army of Roman legionary soldiers
and barbarian auxiliaries into northern Britain, known as Caledonia
to the Romans. At a place called Mount Graupius, Agricola won
a decisive victory over a large Caledonian host, and it appeared
at the time that, forty-one years on, the Roman military conquest
of Britain had finally been completed. Agricola had already
begun thinking about a new challenge, the invasion and conquest
of Ireland, but was recalled from Britain by the Roman emperor; and
it proved to be Rome's failure, or unwillingness, to assume
political control over northern Britain in the wake of Agricola's
achievement that would become greatly significant in shaping
the medieval and post-medieval political and cultural history
of Britain and Ireland. James Fraser is the first historian
to identify the true site of this legendary battle, and presents
a totally new interpretation of why the Romans invaded Scotland.
Roman Frontier in Britain: Hadrian's... Wall, the Antonine
Wall and Roman Policy in Scotland. An up-to-date and in-depth
historical study of the northern Roman frontier in Britain,
why was the military conquest of Scotland never completed and
what were the criteria governing Roman policy over the centuries?
The idea of the Roman frontier immediately conjures up pictures
of Hadrian's Wall with its forts and other remains, and of the
Antonine Wall in Scotland. These two structures, however, represent
two elements in a story which took a great deal longer to evolve
and which, if taken in isolation, tend to mask a clear appraisal
of the way in which the frontier in Britain actually developed.
What, after all, did the Romans want to achieve in Britain?
Why did they not capitalise on Agricola's victory at Mons Graupius
in AD83 to subdue the entire country once and for all? How did
the idea for a physical barrier evolve? And why, after all the
effort of building Hadrian's Wall, did the emperor Antoninus
Pius embark upon fresh conquest in Scotland? This book is intended
primarily as an historical treatment of the Roman military occupation
in Britain up until the early third century AD, although it
does also describe the later history of the frontier zone. It
draws upon archaeological evidence, but is not intended as a
guide to the remains of Hadrian's and Antonine's Walls. Rather,
it aims to set these spectacular fortifications into the broader
context of Roman military plans. tour Roman
Gathering of Eagles: Romans in... Scotland. This book provides
an introduction to one of the formative periods of Scottish
history. The opening chapter offers a perspective of the Roman
achievement, as viewed by Magnus Maximus, usurper and claimant
to the imperial throne, while the final chapter offers another
imagined personal commentary on the transition from the Roman
period. In between is an account of the monuments which remain
today as memorials to imperial rule. From the great marching
camps, to roads, from siegeworks to signal stations, from altars
to bathhouses and of course along the great fixed fortification
of the Antonine Wall, the Roman presence remains a real and
palpable one. This, after all, was the northern frontier. Again
and again massive imperial armies struck north, under Agricola
and under Septimius Severus to name but the most famous - and
again and again the tribesmen of the north struck back, most
notably in the great Barbarian conspiracy of the late fourth
century. Here, almost more than on any other frontier, we see
the Empire wrestling with the problem of controlling and containing
a restless population, and even as the Empire collapsed it may
have left one last legacy which shaped the future of Scotland
the memory and tradition of Empire. Roman
Roman Army Enthusiasts
Roman Law, Scots Law and Legal History: Selected Essays (Edinburgh Studies in Law): Selected Essays (Edinburgh Studies in Law). Roman Law, Scots Law and Legal History. This book is a selection of articles published by the author in the course of his career, most of which was spent as Douglas Professor of Civil Law and latterly as professorial research fellow at Glasgow University. Some of these articles deal with the never-ending problems of the interpretation of the Roman sources in their original context, problems which are not without resonances in modern law which are touched on. Others are concerned with what was made of the rich sources of legal wisdom to be found in the Roman texts by later jurists and the influence that the Civil law as so understood, along with Canon law, had on the development of Scots law. Individual studies are complemented by more general surveys, including a comparison with the position in England. Another group of articles deals more directly with issues in Scottish legal history, Balfour's Practicks, the activities of Bell as a law commissioner and the sources of Stair. A final group considers more general issues. The opportunity has been taken to make some revisions of and updates to the original texts and there are cross-references to relevant studies which have not been reproduced. A bibliography of the author's publications appears in the final chapter.
Aerial view of Ardoch Roman Camp. Not far from Auchterarder, and located near Braco, the Roman Camp is one of the largest Roman stations in Britain, with substantial earthworks dating from the second Century.
A chest of Roman arms was found under a moss, near the house of Lord Macdonald
At Houghton North Farm, purpose-built accommodation is situated in the beautiful Northumberland countryside right on the Heritage trail around fifteen miles from the start of the Hadrian’s Wall Trail at Segedunum Wallsend.
The Old Repeater Station is a large detached stone building with a slate roof near to the most scenic part of Hadrian's Wall.
The Old Chapel is located in the village of Bowness on Solway, at the end of Hadrians Wall.